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Objective To estimate the risk of breast cancer associated with diagnostic radiation in carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations.
Design Retrospective cohort study (GENE-RAD-RISK).
Setting Three nationwide studies (GENEPSO, EMBRACE, HEBON) in France, United Kingdom, and the Netherlands,
Participants 1993 female carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations recruited in 2006-09.
Main outcome measure Risk of breast cancer estimated with a weighted Cox proportional hazards model with a time dependent individually estimated cumulative breast dose, based on nominal estimates of organ dose and frequency of self reported diagnostic procedures. To correct for potential survival bias, the analysis excluded carriers who were diagnosed more than five years before completion of the study questionnaire.
Results In carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations any exposure to diagnostic radiation before the age of 30 was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer (hazard ratio 1.90, 95% confidence interval 1.20 to 3.00), with a dose-response pattern. The risks by quarter of estimated cumulative dose <0.0020 Gy, ?0.0020-0.0065 Gy, ?0.0066-0.0173 Gy, and ?0.0174 Gy were 1.63 (0.96 to 2.77), 1.78 (0.88 to 3.58), 1.75 (0.72 to 4.25), and 3.84 (1.67 to 8.79), respectively. Analyses on the different types of diagnostic procedures showed a pattern of increasing risk with increasing number of radiographs before age 20 and before age 30 compared with no exposure. A history of mammography before age 30 was also associated with an increased risk of breast cancer (hazard ratio 1.43, 0.85 to 2.40). Sensitivity analysis showed that this finding was not caused by confounding by indication of family history.
Conclusion In this large European study among carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations, exposure to diagnostic radiation before age 30 was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer at dose levels considerably lower than those at which increases have been found in other cohorts exposed to radiation. The results of this study support the use of non-ionising radiation imaging techniques (such as magnetic resonance imaging) as the main tool for surveillance in young women with BRCA1/2 mutations.
F E van Leeuwen, (email@example.com)
Of course you would make the point that MRI is difficult to obtain, long wait times, not accessible to some who has metal implants including pacemakers and dental works, a source for electromagnetic toxicity in our body, and not good for people with claustrophobia. and please add the fact that :
One in 8 women will get breast cancer at some point in their life. That is a well researched fact. Therefore a thorough regular breast self exam, regular Doctors’ check-ups, and THERMOGRAPHY all together will provide you with the earliest cancer detection in the system available. Digital infrared thermal imaging can detect early and subtle physiologic changes that comes with breast pathology such as an infection, fibrocystic disease and or diseases of the vascular and lymphatic systems.
It is advisable that you go for Thermography regularly (yearly if you have no history of breast cancer ). The first session will be your “Baseline Thermal Signature”. Successive annual thermography will give you an information, thus you will be able to map any changes in your body in time. This pattern of changes, if any, will allow your Physician, Naturopaths, Nutritionists, Homeopaths, TCMs, Ayurvedic MDs, Wellness based Dentists, Physiotherapists, Psychotherapists, Chiropractic MDs, etc, to perform any necessary changes or alteration in your health before a disease develops. A great tool for mapping any deviation from the norm of your breast health.
Not just breast imaging is the only benefit of Thermography. It is also a beneficial tool to both sexes in diagnosing pain and injury, and other sources of infection.
Thermography is the only method for “visualizing” your pain pathology as it registers heat measurements on the inflamed tissue. Thermography is a very useful procedure that is adjunctive to other diagnostic tools such as mammography, x-rays, ultrasound, bone scans and yes, MRI. But, Thermography is totally safe, risk free, cost effective, images are instant, pain free, fills the questionable gap in clinical diagnosis.
The uniqueness of Thermography is that it has the ability to accurately gage and measure your physiological changes and metabolic processes before a disease develops.
Any queries please feel free to send us an email ( firstname.lastname@example.org ), or call us, or visit us on FaceBook ( High Park Thermography Clinic) and check us out with lots of updates and please free to leave us a comment or two and Like our postings as well!!
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